More Light on the Expanding Universe explores the ramifications of the existence of a fourth physical dimension into which the universe is expanding. One of these is the possibility that light travels at infinite speed from the source to any receptor anywhere, rather than at the 300,000 Kilometers per second generally accepted by contemporary physicists. This resolves many of the paradoxes in present-day physics, and simplifies many of the complexities associated with Einstein's special theory of relativity.
In More Light on the Expanding Universe, Les Hardison, now retired from a career as a mechanical engineer, reveals decades of pondering the state of physics and develops this alternate premise. This volume continues the presentation begun in its companion work, A New Light on the Expanding Universe.
More Light on the Expanding Universe proceeds in a thoughtful and orderly way to draw out the consequences of reconceiving the nature of light. In the course of seventeen chapters, the explication of this revised understanding of light relies both on traditional thought-experiments and on the development and explanation of the equations that physicists typically use to delineate statements of the nature and interaction of matter and energy. The final chapter provides both context and commentary on the journey the author undertook to develop the work's statement of the nature of physical reality.
This exploration proposes a novel conception of physics and explains the ramifications of asserting that light travels from a source to any detector instantaneously rather than at a finite velocity.
CHAPTER 2 THE LIGHTLESS UNIVERSE This section deals with some of the properties of light which arise by implication if the velocity of light is taken as infinite, and the perceived velocity of light is assigned to the velocity at which the three dimensional universe is moving through a four dimensional space. In particular, I want to cover the properties of light associated with transmission, refraction, reflection, and visual perception. The importance of these is that they all make sense when viewed in the framework of the expanding universe, in which light is an instantaneous transfer of energy and involves neither waves nor particles. All of the properties of light help support the overall picture I have proposed for the way space and time are related. The "Frequency" of Light The phenomena of transmission, refraction and reflection were described in detail by Sir Isaac Newton in his book on Optics, published in 1704 . He had no knowledge of atomic structure, but he was well aware of the "rules" that seemed to govern the transmission of light from a source to a receptor. Like everyone else, he presumed that light traveled through space like sound waves or golf balls, or anything else perceived to move from one place at a given time to another place at a later time. The evidence all seemed to support this assumption. The perception of light by the human eye is a truly marvelous process, but much of it depends on the same optical properties of the lens of the eye as telescopes, microscopes and cameras. It will be demonstrated that the optical properties of light, although wholly defined by the amount of energy transferred in a single emission/absorption episode, are related, not to the energy content of the transmission, but rather to a "frequency:" which is related to the energy by Planck's constant, according to EQUATION 1 where: E= "Energy" associated with the transfer event h= Planck's constant f=Perceived frequency of light. Because I maintain that there are really no light waves moving between the emission source and the receptor --- nothing at all passing through the intervening space if there is no material present, the concept of the frequency of light does not seem to fit into the picture at all. However many of the properties of light, like the colors we observe, and the distribution of the optical spectrum by a prism, are, apparently related, not to the energy exchanged, but rather to the frequency of the electron orbit in the atom emitting the radiation during the transmission event. This is a function of the square root of the energy, or to "frequency" assigned to the transmission by Equation 1. So, I will, in most of the following work, use frequency in the conventional sense when talking about the optical properties of light. However, I will, at all times, treat this as simply a measure of the energy being transmitted, which has to do with change in orbital frequency of the inner electrons of the emitting atom and receiving atom, rather than the frequency of light "waves" traversing the space between them. . It should be remembered that light can be emitted from atoms which have either one or two electrons orbiting the nucleus for hydrogen and helium atoms, and in the innermost orbit for all heavier atoms. These electrons, whether a single one in the case of the hydrogen free radical, or a pair of electrons sharing the inner orbit for hydrogen atoms or molecules, and for helium atoms, have all of the properties required to account for the observed properties of radiant energy transfer. Larger and more complex atoms also have a pair of electrons in the inner orbit, which are likely to rotate at the same orbital radius as for either hydrogen or helium, but which are capable of much higher orbital velocities because of the greater electrical charges on their nuclei. Therefore, the heavier atoms are likely to be able to emit radiant energy at higher energy levels than hydrogen and helium. The higher energy levels would be described as having higher frequencies. Because visible light has energy levels which are characterized by frequencies in the visible range, it is much simpler to talk about "light" and to presume that it is emitted by hydrogen and helium atoms in the sun and stars than to continually reference electromagnetic radiation from whatever source. However, all of the discussion should apply to radiant energy transmission ranging from gamma rays, on the very high energy end of the spectrum, to long radio waves on the low end. All radiant energy transfers should be governed by the same rules.
Les Hardison is an eighty-five-year-old retired engineer. He graduated from Illinois Institute of Technology in 1950 with a degree in mechanical engineering. During his working years, he was a petroleum process design engineer for UOP, Inc., and later technical director of UOP Air Correction Division. During the last twenty-five years of his working career, he was president of ARI Technologies, Inc., a small air pollution control company that developed, among other things, the LO-CAT Hydrogen Sulfide Oxidation Process. He has recently been awarded a US patent for the development of a system for viewing ordinary TV programs in 3-D without special glasses or alterations to the television set or program production. He has never had any special training in physics or cosmology and recognizes that if he knew more about them, he would probably not have written either the first book, A New Light on the Expanding Universe, or this one.